Africa has the world’s youngest population and it is growing rapidly. Hundreds of millions of young Africans will be leaving school over the next decades, at every level, and looking for jobs. The challenges and obstacles unemployed youth and the working poor face are diverse and vary between countries. Youth employment is largely a problem of quality in low-income countries and one of quantity in middle-income countries. Youth in vulnerable employment and working poverty are the large majority in poor countries. In upper middle-income countries more youth are unemployed, discouraged or inactive. In all country groups more young people are discouraged than unemployed, suggesting that the youth employment challenge has been underestimated.