Promoting industrialisation is back on Africa’s economic policy agenda, with renewed impetus and vigour. Industrialisation in 21st century Africa calls for innovative strategies embracing all the potential of its 54 countries. First, innovative industrialisation strategies should go beyond sectoral approaches that target only manufacturing. Africa can industrialise by promoting all economic sectors that have potential for high growth and employment creation. Second, strategies should include high-potential entrepreneurs. Start-ups and small and medium-sized firms with high-potential can complement the growth of large companies in driving Africa’s industrialisation. Finally, policies must promote “green industrialisation” with lower environmental costs. Industrial policies must adapt lessons from countries that have already developed a strong industrial base to the distinct African context. Innovative peer learning is critical to the new wave of industrialisation in Africa.
How can African governments design and implement effective industrialisation strategies? About half of the African countries have strategies for industrial development which aim to create labour-intensive industries to enhance job growth. However, these blueprints often do not address the needs of firms that have high growth potential. Capacity to implement policies is also weak, often resulting in conflicting mandates across different government agencies. Governments should design strategies that remove the existing binding constraints on high-potential entrepreneurs. Implementing productivity strategies requires full commitment, strong and far-sighted political leadership, efficient government co-ordination and active private-sector participation. Involving local governments can help tailor industrial policies to firms’ needs. Finally, evaluating policies and their impacts is key to ensuring the success of industrial policies.
The report’s final chapter tackles three particularly important policy areas to ease the constraints that most entrepreneurs in Africa are confronted with. First, to strengthen skills, there is need for public policies that priorities formal education, apprenticeships, vocational training and managerial capabilities in order to meet labor market needs. Second, policies that support business clusters can help raise the productivity and growth of firms, including smaller ones. Third, financial market policies can increase firms’ access to innovative and tailored sources of finance.